American University of Central Asia - AUCA - 2016-2017 Academic year

Anthropology Club meetings 2016-2017

 

10 мая, 2017

Эмиль Насритдинов и Толгонай Кожоева

Влияние вступления Кыргызстана в Евразийский экономический союз на жизнь кыргызских мигрантов в России и деятельность рынка Дордой

 

В данной работе мы для начала проанализируем ожидаемые выгоды и риски, связанные с присоединением Кыргызстана к ЕАЭС в целом и, более конкретно, в сфере трудовой миграции. Эта часть исследования основана на обзоре академических статей, политических отчетов и дискурсах в СМИ. Вторая часть отчета основана на анализе эмпирических данных, собранных в рамках этого исследования в двух локациях: в Москве и в Бишкеке. Полевое исследование проводилось зимой 2016-2017 гг. Основное внимание в нем уделяется двум характерным видам миграции: 1) трудовая миграция и 2) трансграничная торговая миграция. Выступление организовано в том же порядке: во-первых, мы обсудим характер ЕАЭС и присоединение Кыргызстана к нему на основе обзора литературы; затем обсудим влияние ЕАЭС на жизнь кыргызских трудовых мигрантов в Москве; и наконец, влияние ЕАЭС на трансграничную торговлю, взяв в качестве примера Дордой – крупнейший рынок в Центральной Азии. Затем мы попытаемся обобщить все данные в выводах.

Иследование проводилось при поддержке Экономической и социальной комиссии Организации Объединенных Наций для Азии и Тихого океана.

 

3 мая, 2017

Эмиль Насритдинов, Др.

Радикализация мигрантов из Кыргызстана в Российской Федерации (?)

 

Последние печальные события в Российской Федерации: террористический акт в метро, унесший жизни 15-ти Российских граждан, и последовавшие за этим аресты приковали внимание общественности к Кыргызстану – родине предполагаемых террористов. Данные события очень хорошо вписываются в исследовательскую гипотезу американского ученого Ноа Такера, утверждающего, что подавляющее большинство экстремистов и террористов из Центральной Азии радикализуются в России. Данное исследование пытается понять насколько применима гипотеза Такера к мигрантам из Кыргызстана и какие факторы способствуют, а какие препятствуют радикализации Кыргызстанских мигрантов. Исследование проводилось в 2016-17гг. при поддержке офиса ПРООН в Кыргызстане и базируется на более 40 глубинных интервью с экспертами из различных стран и c Кыргызскими мигрантами в России.

Эмиль Насритдинов – доцент кафедры антропология, Американского Университета Центральной Азии. Основные исследовательские и преподавательские интересы: миграция, религия и городская антропология.

 

26 апреля, 2017

Др. Кубат Рахимов

Этноэкономика Центральной Азии. Правда и Мифы.

 

Существуют различные определения понятия этноэкономики. В узком смысле под этноэкономикой понимается сегмент национальной экономики, представленный традиционными архаическими хозяйственными укладами, в широком смысле – это специфическая форма национальной экономики [Денисова, Радовель, 2000].

Во всех важных сферах жизнедеятельности общества в Кыргызстане уже проявлялись и проявляются так или иначе этноэкономические черты, то есть некий набор качеств, присущих тому или иному этносу и выгодно отличавших, пускай и обобщенно, от представителей других этноэкономик (в данном случае речь идет о микроэкономиках). Целые районы, населенные, например, дунганами или корейцами, оказывались лидерами в выращивании и переработке определенных сельскохозяйственных культур. На промышленных предприятиях доминировали инженерно-технические кадры, как пример, славянской, немецкой, корейской национальности, в финансовом и сбытовом секторе больших успехов достигали те же представители еврейской национальности или из закавказских республик. Уже в советские годы были предпочтения руководителей крупных предприятий по тем или иным специальностям брать тех или иных представителей этносов. В это же время мощными темпами рос слой ИТР и профессионалов коренных, автохтонных этносов союзных республик. Таким образом, происходила колоссальная трансформация многих представителей данных этносов.
Данные процессы на самом деле глубоко не изучены, исследованиям такого рода мешают как старые стереотипы, ложно понятые принципы этнической толерантности, так и отсутствие узких специалистов именно в сфере этноэкономики.

К. К. Рахимов является автором различных статей научного и публицистического характера, а также комментатором и экспертом ряда СМИ постсоветского пространства по широкому кругу вопросов.

 

April 12th, 2017

Pr. Nathan Light

Central Asian Anthropology Accelerates: The past decade in context

 

This lecture considers the past 60 years of social and cultural anthropological research in Central Asia explores what has held the field back for so long, and why and how it has become so productive in the past decade. I seek to stimulate a conversation about the value and potential of anthropology of Central Asia, and the reasons it has been slow to develop as an academic field. How can we expand its potential moving forward? What kind of institutional and other support is still needed and how can we improve its contributions to the wider field of anthropology? My analysis is rooted in comparisons among institutional contexts of anthropology in different countries of Europe, North America and elsewhere, as well as among programs and accomplishments of anthropological research in different areas of Eurasia. Although there are many questions and few clear answers, part of the task undertaken here is to refine the questions and identify relevant examples of academic success in the study of Eurasia.

Nathan Light received his PhD from Indiana University in 1998, and is now a researcher at the Department of Anthropology and Ethnology at Uppsala University, Sweden. He has conducted field research in northwest China and Kyrgyzstan and has published on economic anthropology, cultural performance and history in Central Asia, including the volume Intimate Heritage: Creating Uyghur Muqam Song in Xinjiang (2008). He spent five years as a researcher at the Max Planck institute for Social Anthropology investigating history, kinship, ritual and economy in Kyrgyzstan. He was part of the project “Genealogy and History: collective identities in independent Kyrgyzstan” funded by VolkswagenStiftung, and is now engaged in the project “Embedded in History: A study of Kyrgyz historicity and historical consciousness” that investigates forms of historical knowledge in Kyrgyzstan, funded by the Swedish Riksbankens Jubileumsfond.

 

April 5th, 2017

Malgorzata Biczyk

Toilet paper. Hygiene development in anthropological perspective - field notes from Kyrgyzstan.

 

Hygiene is a purely cultural concept and as such falls into the categories of tabooisation, what makes it a lovely subject for an anthropologist. Hygiene is also a growing field addressed by development politics and practices. This presentation is to reflex on research conducted in 2009 on EcoSanToiletts projects in Kyrgyzstan, with an aim to inspire for more toilet papers.

Malgorzata (Gosia) Biczyk, cultural anthropologists. Born in communist Poland, educated in Warsaw, Bishkek and Halle. From 2003 in complicated love relationship with Central Asia and anthropology of this region. Currently works as an integrated expert in environmental NGO in Bishkek.

 

March 29, 2017

Dr. Mitja Velikonja

When Walls Speak: Introduction to Graffiti and Street-Art Studies

 

The aim of presentation is to critically examine one of the most vibrant, controversial and multi-sided contemporary urban sub-cultures: graffiti and street art. Although globally spread, this specific creative form has still not been properly addressed as a legitimate scientific topic: so far, not many useful, theoretically and methodologically founded and comparative studies have been written about it. Presentation will include these sub-topics: definition of main terms; types and techniques of graffiti and street art; sites of meaning of graffiti; qualitative and quantitative approaches in researching graffiti; and methods of researching them.​ Ambition of the presentation, which includes dozens of original photos from different parts of the world, is to go beyond only aesthetic dimensions of graffiti and to reach its broader ideological aspects and concrete political potentials.

Dr. Mitja Velikonja is a Professor for Cultural Studies and head of Center for Cultural and Religious Studies at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Main areas of his research include Central-European and Balkan political ideologies, subcultures and graffiti culture, collective memory and post-socialist nostalgia. His last monographs in English language are Rock'n'Retro - New Yugoslavism in Contemporary Slovenian Music (Ljubljana; 2013), Titostalgia – A Study of Nostalgia for Josip Broz (Ljubljana; 2008 ), Eurosis – A Critique of the New Eurocentrism (Ljubljana; 2005​ ) and Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina (TAMU Press; 2003). He is the co-author of the book in Serbian Celestial Yugoslavia: Interaction of Political Mythologies and Popular Culture (Belgrade; 2012) and the co-editor of the book Post-Yugoslavia - New Cultural and Political Perspectives (Palgrave; 2014). For his achievements he received four national and one international award. He was a full-time visiting professor at Jagiellonian University in Krakow (2002 and 2003), at Columbia University in New York (2009 and 2014), at University of Rijeka (2015), at New York Institute in St. Petersburg (2015 and 2016), Fulbright visiting researcher at Rosemont College in Philadelphia (2004/2005) and research fellow at The Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies in Wassenaar (2012).​

 

March 15, 2017

Pr. Vanessa Ruget

Engaging migrants & diaspora: lessons for Kyrgyzstan

 

Migrants worldwide are increasingly seen as assets by their home countries given the developmental potential of remittances and the rise of transnational practices and outlooks. Accordingly, to sustain these remittance flows and encourage return, sending countries are moving towards adopting diaspora support policies such as external voting rights, diaspora bonds, or portable social rights. Where does Kyrgyzstan --the second most remittance-dependent country in the world –stand on this? What can it learn from other countries?

Vanessa Ruget is Associate Professor of political science at Salem State University (Massachusetts, USA), teaching courses focusing on developing countries, democratization, and global poverty. In the past, she taught political science at the American University – Central Asia and at the OSCE Academy in Bishkek as well as in France and in Kosovo. She received her Ph.D. in 2000 from the University of Bordeaux (France). Her current research focuses on labor migration in Central Asia; she was recently awarded a Fulbright Flex Research Award to Kyrgyzstan.

 

22 февраля, 2017

Алтын Капалова

Управление водными ресурсами в селах Кыргызстана: инфраструктура, управленцы, процессы.
На примере села Эки-Нарын.

 

Данная презентация основана на данных полевых исследований собранных летом прошлого года в селе Эки-Нарын Нарынской области. Результаты исследования ответили не только на главный вопрос о роли формальных и неформальных акторов в процессе управления водными ресурсами, но так же раскрыли вопросы, лежащие в плоскости детского труда, гендерного равенства, безопасности и здоровья.

*Данная презентация основана на данных полевых исследований проведенных MSRI в рамках проект ESPA (Ecosystems Services for Poverty Alleviation).

Алтын Капалова – антрополог, исследователь в Институте Исследования Горных Сообществ, Университет Центральной Азии. Один из главных интересов антропологических исследований Алтын включает изучение неформального общения в Кыргызском обществе.

 

February 8, 2017

Daler Kaziev

AUCA anthropology student experience: Walung village, Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal

 

In November 2016 Daler was invited to participate in a field visit to Nepal with the extended project team. Coming from the Eastern Pamirs, with its different historical legacies such as imperialism, socialism, and post-socialism, he found his visit to Nepal culturally unique, historically different, yet very similar in terms of current developments. Nepal has experienced its own history of geopolitics and process of nation-building, but a similar commodification of culture and landscape for tourism purposes happens there today. His talk will be about Nepal as a developing country, Kathmandu as a capital city, the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area as nature and culture, and Walung village as a significant crossroad of trade and exchange and a juncture in a truly global network. He will try to explain what is happening with development in the highlands of Asia, how borders, trade and exchange play important roles, and what is happening with conservation efforts, cross-border business, and tourism. The focus will be the contemporary dynamics in remote and mountains areas of developing countries. His main ideas is that one of the remotest place in the Himalayas, Walung, has never been disconnected from the outside world. He will discuss the annual monastery festival known as Phutuk, a time when many Walung people living in Kathmandu, Darjeeling, or abroad come back to the village in order to celebrate the festival. Phutuk is an old festival, which survived and is now celebrated in the age of globalization. Having seen the rituals performed during the festival, he feels the importance of a sense of place and cultural belonging in the global context today.

This field trip was part of the research project “Remoteness & Connectivity: Highland Asia in the World“ to which Daler is contributing. The overarching aim of this five-year project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) is to gain a better comparative understanding of the mountainous areas between the Pamirs and the eastern slopes of the Himalayas, their interconnections, and the stakes and perspectives of their local communities. See www.highlandasia.net for more information on its various subprojects and activities.

Bio: Daler is a minoring student at the AUCA’s Anthropology department and one of the first graduating students of the newly established Environmental Management and Sustainable Development program.

 

25 января, 2017

Эмиль Насритдинов и Нургуль Эсенаманова

“Люди в черном 5: Война билбордов” – Хиджаб, светскость и общественное пространство в Бишкеке

В данной работе мы исследуем, как религия борется за свое пространство в городе Бишкек. Растущее число практикующих мусульман утверждает свое право быть в городе, жить согласно своим религиозным принципам и создавать исламские микро-пространства. Такие притязания не остаются неоспариваемыми и, так как у религиозной идентичности есть сильный визуальный компонент, религиозные практики часто становятся предметами острой общественной дискуссии, как произошло в случае с билбордами летом 2016 года. Такие споры часто накладываются на социально сконструированные гендерные иерархии, и мы наблюдаем, как религиозные/светское оспаривание общественного пространства превращается в мужское оспаривание женского, в котором обе стороны (и религиозная и светская), представленные сильными патриархальными фигурами, претендуют на то, что знают, как женщины должны одеваться. Однако как показывает наше исследование, Бишкекские женщины не особенно нуждаются в модных советах от мужчин. Исламские женские практики и движение за права мусульманских женщин набирали обороты в городе еще с 90-х годов и на сегодняшний день создали мощный импульс со своей независимой траекторией. Женщины в хиджабах сегодня стали важной визуальной и социальной составляющей города со своими притязаниями на городское пространство. В данной работе мы рассмотрим, как формируются общественные дискурсы вокруг хиджаба в Бишкеке и как это отражается на жизни практикующих мусульманок.


Эмиль Насритдинов, доцент кафедры антропология, АУЦА. 
Нургуль Эсенаманова, и.о.доцента кафедры Философии и социально-гуманитарных наук, Кыргызская Государственная Юридическая Академия.

Отдельное спасибо - за информацию и помощь в проведении опроса - Жамал Фронтбек кызы и за помощь в обработке данных Aigerim Musaeva.

 

November 30, 2016

Alena Zelenskaia

The Motives of Migration to Germany – Сases of Asylum-Seekers from Post-Soviet Countries

 

Since the end of the WWII Germany has experienced several so called „waves“ of migration. Different types of refugees were always presented in the „flows“ of resettlers. Part of them originate from the ex-Soviet republics. Although nowadays most of the Post-Soviet countries are peaceful, there are still a lot of people, who seek asylum in Germany alongside with refugees from Syria, Irak or Afghanistan. Why did they flee? Why did they choose Germany as a desired destination? Was Germany theit first choice? What life projects in Germany do they have? These and other questions were in focus of the research, conducted from April 2014 till August 2015 in asylums of Berlin and Bavaria. The research was based on the participant observation and biographical interviews with refugees from Latvia, Russia, Turkmenistan and the Ukraine. Comparative and case-study analysis revealed, that refugees' reasons for moving to Germany often involve both push and pull factors. The decision is not obligatory due to hard life circumstances or need to flee wars, unrest, human rights abuse or poverty. The reasons for migration vary by the countries of origin, but also have common features. The main finding of the research is that the narration about the motives of migration has two modes: official and informal. Some stories, told by the same people in a different time, drastically differ from each other. The research contributes to a better understanding of migrants' experience, because it provides insights into their individual stories and examine challenges they undergo in Germany.

Alena Zelenskaia was born Rostov-on-Don, Russia, in 1988. She received B.A. degree in international journalism from the Southern Federal University in 2009. During the university period she freelanced in different city newspapers and magazines. In 2011 Alena graduated with M.A. degree in international relations from St. Petersburg State University and continued PhD studies there. However, an exchange year abroad - in Germany - reversed her academic interests in a new direction and interrupted her work on the PhD dissertation. Instead of it Alena wrote her second Master thesis on refugeehood and obtained M.A. degree in cultural anthropology from the European University in St. Petersburg.

 

November 23, 2016 

Dr. Frank G. Karioris

Encouraging the Couple: Marital Efforts of the University

 

Why might a university want students to be in couples? How is the university, as an institution, rooted in heterosexual marriage? Based on extensive fieldwork at private, Catholic university in the United States, this paper will look at the ways that sexuality on campus is not just taking place between students, but as part of larger institutional forces and outcomes. To investigate this it will look at the ways that two particular events discuss and place heterosexuality and the successful pairing off of students as key elements for the students and put forward a desired ideology surrounding courtship. Further, the presentation will explore the ways that the events and the structure of them set up specific heterosexual couplings and set out a vision of the events, and even the campus, as a place for heterosexual pairing off and marriage, and the fashion that this is critical to the student experience and their perception of the university as a whole.

Frank G. Karioris, PhD is an Assistant Professor of Sociology & General Education at the American University of Central Asia. He has a PhD from Central European University in Comparative Gender Studies with a Specialization in Sociology & Social Anthropology. He has published on various topics including masculinities, higher education, and liminality. His most recent book is Masculinities Under Neoliberalism (Zed Books, 2016) which he co-edited with Dr. Andrea Cornwall and Dr Nancy Lindisfarne.

 

October 26, 2016

Zarina Urmanbetova

The Role of The Migration Process in The Formation of Ethnic Boundaries and Identity Among Kyrgyz Community in Ulupamir Village

 

About 30 years ago the ethnic Kyrgyz community from Pakistan came as refugees to eastern Turkey. After four years of refugee life in northern Pakistan they were brought to Turkey in 1982 with about 4,000 other refugees. Their motherland was in the Pamir valleys of Afghanistan before their exodus to the Pakistan after the Saur Revolution in 1979 in Kabul.

Nowadays according to the Statistical Committee of TR there are about 1720 people living in the village of Ulupamir relating to the Van region of Turkish Republic.

The biggest tragedy for the ethnic Kyrgyz community in Ulupamir village until now is the migration process which had a strong influence on formation of their ethnic boundaries and identity. During this process, they have established economic, political and cultural relations with different ethnic groups. This case has affected everyday life, cultural traits and the socio-economic structure of the Kyrgyz community.

Key words: Forced Migration, Ethnicity, Ethnic Boundaries, Culture, Cultural - Economic Change

Bio: Zarina is a freelance researcher, who recently completed her Masters degree in anthropology from the Hacettepe University, Turkey. Prior to that she received BA in communication in the Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University. Zarina has always been interested in the themes of beliefs, religion, religious practices, ethnicity and gender.

 

October 12, 2016

Dr. Lori Handrahan

Unsung Heroes of Kyrgyzstan

 

Abstract: In the 1990s, men and women all over Kyrgyzstan were faced with a crisis - how to feed, clothe, shelter and provide for themselves and their children? After the collapse of the Soviet empire, the heavy subsides Kyrgyzstan enjoyed during USSR’s reign disappeared virtually overnight, leaving an entire country reeling from severe economic shock. Women, by and large, made painful decisions to leave their children and families and travel (on the very first charter flights) to unknown countries in order to provide for their families. The shuttle trade was dominated by women in the 1990s. These unsung heroes jump-started the Kyrgyz economy at great personal cost. In 1996, I arrived in the midst of this decade as a young UN volunteer, twenty years later, I share my impressions with Bishkek millennials—least they forget.

Bio: has over twenty years of humanitarian and human rights work in Central Asia, Africa and the Balkans focusing on gender-based violence, conflict/post-conflict environments, UN reform and ending child sex abuse. She completed her Ph.D. at London School of Economics. Her publications and media are listed here: www.LoriHandrahan.com

 

5 октября, 2016

Чолпон Чотаева и Матос Черпаков

От кого мы произошли? Енисейские кыргызы - предки современных кыргызов или хакасов?

 

Тезисы: Енисейские кыргызы - это народ, который проживал на территории реки Енисей в средние века и создал одну из самых могущественных империй на территории Евразии. В настоящее время несколько народов претендуют на роль потомков енисейских кыргызов. Среди таких народов хакасы, продолжающие населять территорию Енисея, и современные кыргызы, живущие в Кыргызстане. Если хакасы, проживающие на исконной территории енисейских кыргызов, утратили свое самоназвание "кыргыз" и стали называться хакасами, то современные кыргызы, наоборот, сохранили этот древний этноним "кыргыз", но переселились далеко за пределы Южной Сибири. На презентации будут рассматриваться понятия "этноним" и "этнополитоним", обсуждаться принятые в официальной историографии теории происхождения современных кыргызов и хакасов, а также предлагаться новые нетрадиционные точки зрения на этническую историю и происхождение двух народов. Презентация базируется на полевом исследовании, проведенном в г. Абакан, Республика Хакасия, в июне 2016 года.

Чотаева Чолпон Дженишбековна, доктор исторических наук, профессор программы антропологии Американского университета Центральной Азии. Занимается вопросами межэтнических отношений, национально-гусударственного строительства, языковой политики в Кыргызстане. В настоящее время интересуется проблемами в области истории и археологии Кыргызстана.

Черпаков Матос Александрович, магистрант факультета истории Кыргызского Национального Университета. Закончил отделение международных отношений Университета Гази в г. Анкара, Турция. В настоящее время пишет магистерскую диссератцию, посвященную изучению вопросов, связанных с этнонимом "кыргыз" и происхождением родоплеменных связей хакасов.

 

September 21, 2016

Pr. Paul Fryer 

The European Migration Crisis: a Finnish perspective

 

For approximately 1 year, the European Union has been gripped by social and political crisis brought on by the influx of undocumented refugees from global trouble spots, such as Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Despite having legislation in place to handle such situations theoretically, the unprecedented numbers of refugees have exposed the weakness of the EU’s policy in practice and especially the divisions within the union itself – spectacularly exposed through this spring’s Brexit vote. While many segments of European society have been largely understanding of the need to act on behalf of these refugees, engaging in discourses about human rights and a presupposed moral leadership that the EU must promote, an increasingly vocal part of European society has been less generous. The anti-refugee movement is due in part to the continuing economic weakness of the union since 2007, with unemployment hitting record highs in many countries, though an increasing xenophobic feeling is on the rise across the continent, led by a growing number of populist and nationalist parties that are disappointed by and sceptical of the EU’s integrationist policy agenda. Against this background, this presentation will look at the crisis, attempt to highlight the facts from the fiction, and take the example of one of the EU’s smaller members – Finland – to examine the fractious discussions in society that the refugee (and more generally a migration) discussion have exposed.

Paul Fryer is Adjunct Professor and lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Eastern Finland, as well as co-ordinator of the university’s international Master’s Degree Programme “Border Crossings: Global and Local Societies in Transition”. Having written on ethnic minorities in Russia and migration processes in the post-Soviet space, Paul Fryer has been involved in 3 projects on borders and migration in the former Soviet republics and led the Academy of Finland funded project “Homes, Phones and Development: Longing and transnationality through new technologies at the Central Asian-Russian and the Thai-Burmese borders” in 2012-13. Currently, Paul Fryer is conducting research on Central Asian labour migrants in Russian cities with Academy of Finland funding.

 

September 7, 2016

Dr. Lela Rekhviashvili

What do we learn from an ethnographic study of bazaars and illegal vending sites about the political economy of development?

 

Why do informal economic practices persist and reproduce? The dominant new-institutionalist answer to this question suggests that the state’s failure to introduce market-enhancing institutions (e.g. the rule of law, security of private property and contract enforcement mechanisms) prevents informally operating actors from formalising their entrepreneurial activities. Relying on a Polanyian institutionalist perspective, in this talk I emphasize the importance of yet another type of failure, namely the state’s incapacity or unwillingness to complement market-enhancing institutions (marketization) with market-constraining/social regulations and institutions for social protection. I argue that this second type of failure triggers the informalization of the reaction to – or countermovement against – the marketization process. The informalization of the countermovement, in turn, reproduces the reliance on informal economic practices and subverts the marketization process. I demonstrate the argument based on ethnographic evidence on petty trade in Tbilisi and discuss: [1] petty traders’ resistance to market-enhancing reforms; [2] the state’s unwillingness to address this resistance and accommodate the traders’ interests; [3] subsequent informalization of the countermovement involving street-level officials’ informal interventions; and [4] the shortcomings of the informalized countermovement.

Lela Rekhviashvili is a post-doctoral researcher at Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography. She has recently defended her doctoral dissertation entitled Counterbalancing marketization informally: Institutional reforms and informal practices in Georgia (2003-2012) at the Doctoral School of Political Science, Public Policy and International Relations, Central European University. Throughout the last years she was a visiting doctoral fellow at the Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography and a research fellow at the Center for Social Sciences. Her research interests include: political economy, informal economic practices, post-socialist transformation, social movements, critical urban studies.

 

 

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