ES 223/ES 223.1 – Introduction to European Security  - Gorkem Atsungur

ES 223/ES 223.1 – Introduction to European Security - Gorkem Atsungur

January 17, 2014


                                                             AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ASIA


Spring 2014


   ES 223 (ES 223.1) – Introduction to European Security

                                                                                 Course ID: 2804 & 3170

                      Course Schedule: Monday 12.45-14.00 R328 & Wednesday 12.45-14.00 R328


Assistant Professor Görkem Atsungur

Office: #214 – European Studies Department.

Office Hours: Wednesday: 10.50-12.05



* European Studies Departmental Course

Number of Credits: 3cr.


   The concept of security and the definition of threats have been changing in the post cold war international system and it started to become more complex than before. There was not only ‘’exact’’ enemy as in the situation of the Cold war. Now, there are also new threats such as international terrorism and ecological warming. Therefore, historical security institutions and approaches are not enough to deal with current threats and are not enough to provide security in the current international system such as in the case of North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Western European Union or Conference Security Cooperation in Europe.



    The European Union has a not united state yet or is not a purely intergovernmental organization such as United Nations. The EU is a quasi supranational organization. It has ability to act in the diplomatic and economic fields and have tried to develop Common Foreign and Security policy. This policy has not a Common policy yet unlike Common Agricultural Policy, Monetary Policy or External Trade policy, etc. It is still evaluated under cooperated policies with inter-governmental approaches. With the last enlargement- 2013, there are twenty eight member states in the EU and each member states have different interests and foreign security policy tasks. The EU is more heterogeneous than before. Even former members cannot act unanimity about Common Foreign and Security policies. Such as Iraqi war 2003, the EU had severe crises in this era. While the UK, Italy and Spain would send soldiers to Iraq, France and Germany refused to send their forces to Iraq at the beginning. It showed that there is not a Common Foreign and Security policy of the member states of the Union. The organization could not achieve to act whole together about Foreign and Security issues, and it effected to the EU integration process deeply.


   This course aimed at introducing students to the attempts, initiatives, plans and projects to add ‘’political’’, ‘’defense’’, and ‘’security’’ dimensions to the integration process in Europe since the end of the Second World War. Although the integration in Western Europe has progressed and advanced most successfully on the economic track both by choice and necessity, military and political cooperation has remained a desirable long term idea.


   The first weeks of the course is devoted the theoretical and historical context of the pursuit of a ‘’common’’ defense policy. In this context, early initiatives such as European Defense Community (EDC), the Western European Union (WEU), and European Political Cooperation (EPC) will be studied. The second part of the course will focus on the changing global context’s impact on the renewal of political and military integration ideas with the end of the Cold War. The second pillar of the EU – Common Foreign Security Policy, and the revitalization of the WEU and their track records in the Balkans in the early 1990s will be analyzed. The course will end with the discussion on the newly emerging security and defense institutions, agencies, structures and policies in the EU as well as their global and regional impacts, including relations with non-EU countries like Turkey, Moldova, Georgia and Kosova.




A. Teaching Methods:

      The course objectives will be achieved through instructional model such as lecturing and also experiential (concept formation, independent research and etc...) and co-operative (role play, simulation and etc...) methods. Instructor would also use PowerPoint presentations for the lecture part.


B. Reading Materials:

      Instructor prepares required materials for students. Necessary course materials, including the course Syllabus, can be found on the course website in the e-course in European Studies Spring 2014.

   Each student has to read required readings which are indicated for each section before the class and students should come ready to present, argue and discuss them. All reading materials are the main responsibility of the students in order to pass this course.


C. Special Needs:

   Students with special needs may require special arrangements relating to attending class sessions, carrying out writing term project or taking examinations. They are strongly encouraged to inform the Instructor during the first week of classes.


D. Classroom Rules of Conduct:

   Please respect university discipline rules and turn off cell phones and pagers during class. Students should keep quiet and not be late for the class. Students cannot use social networks Facebook, VK, and Twitter etc. during the class. If the instructor realizes that a student uses any of these networks during the class, he has right to ask a student to leave the classroom. Food and beverages are not permitted in the classroom. During the exams, the use of cell phones, pagers, PDAs, or any other electronic devices is strictly prohibited. Unmoral/Rude behaviours to other students, staffs and/or the instructor will not be tolerated.


E. Academic Honesty and Discipline:

   Academic dishonesty will not be tolerated at AUCA. All assignments, term papers, and exams must be done by on your own. If student is found to engage in cheating, plagiarism, inventing false information or citations, helping someone else or any other violation of the ‘’Code of Academic Integrity’’, s/he should expect the severest penalties available under AUCA policies.

- According to Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary; Plagiarize means: “to steal and pass of (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own, to use (another’s production) without crediting the source, to commit literary theft and to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.” As a result of these, Plagiarism is an act of fraud.

   Students found guilty of academic dishonesty will be assigned an appropriate academic penalty.

   For more information, please visit:

   If a student has any concerns about how to write an academic article, s/he can feel free to consult the instructor at any time and/or during the office hours. If the Student plagiarizes, s/he will definitely receive F grade for the course




  1. A.    Attendance & Participation – 10%

   The nature of the subject requires active class participation. In order to participate in class discussions effectively, each student is expected to have read all assigned readings listed in the schedule. All students should NOT hesitate to participate when they want to expand the topic or they need further explanation, etc. If student five times absent without medical certification, s/he will automatically be failed in this course. Active and meaningful participation will add 10% to the final grade.


B. Discussions on Seminar Readings – 10%

   Each week, the professor prepares the short readings (1-2 pages) from the most important sources about the security and geopolitics for seminar discussions on Wednesday’s classes. Each student must read all these short readings and be ready to discuss in the class. Seminar discussions will add 10% to the grade.


C. Mid-Term Exam – 20%    05th March 2014 Wednesday

   Each Student must take a Mid-Term exam for this course on 5th March 2014 Wednesday at 12:45. There will be two questions: (1) What is security? How can you define the concept of security, and (2) What are the main theories which are deal with the security? The MT exam will be given in the middle of entire course: 05th March 2014 Wednesday. It will be lasted 75 minutes.


D. Term Paper and Round Table Presentations – 40% -    30th April 2014 Wednesday

   Each Student is required to write to one term paper for this course. The aim of this paper is to help students to improve their writing and research ability.

   Students should pick up one security problems/conflicts in Europe or consult about their term paper with the instructor. Paper should include basic characteristics of the conflict.

   Evaluation of the paper will be based on:

   Structure of the paper will be evaluated as 5%of the total paper grade (title/abstract/keywords/introduction/methods/results/discussion/acknowledgmenets/literature cited/appendices).

   Format of the paper will be evaluated as 5%of the total paper grade. Paper should be between 3.000-4.500 words (6-9 Pages) in length with Times New Roman, 12 font and Double spaces. Students are encouraged to use MLA style.

   Content of the paper which reflects ability of writing and thinking skills will be count as 15%.  

   Bibliography will be counted 3%. There should be more than 5-7 resources at least.

   Language style will be counted 2% of the final paper grade. Student should also pay attention on vocabulary and grammar style.

   The due date for term paper is indicated in the daily schedule of the course syllabus (30th April 2014 Wednesday). No late papers will be accepted! Also, the students must send their term papers by email to Instructor’s email ( at the same day. If the student will not send term paper by email, s/he will receive F grade for the term paper.

   Moreover, there will be Round Table public seminar by the students. Each student will present his/her term paper topic in 15 minutes and they will receive the certificate for this seminar.

    As a result of these, Term paper will be counted as 30% and Presentation will be counted as 10% to the final grade.


E. Final Exam Test – 20%     07th May 2014 Wednesday

   Each Student must take a final exam (20%) for this course. The final test will be given after the entire course is completed. It will be lasted 75 minutes. There will be multiple choice and short identification questions. Make-up examinations will NOT be administered except in the case of a medical emergency.


Grading Policy:

  The grade for the course will be comprised of the following percentages:

Attendance and Participation: 10%

Discussions on Seminar Readings: 10%

Mid-Term Exam: 20%

Term Paper: 40%

Final Exam:  20%


Quality Points


Grade Percentages




Above 93%




89.51% - 92.49%




85.51% - 89.49%




82.51% - 85.49%




79.51% - 82.49%




75.51% - 79.49%




72.51% - 75.49%




69.51% - 72.49%




65.51% - 69.49%




62.51% - 65.49%




59.51% - 62.51%




Less than 59.49 %



*Note: These grades are used for all courses of European Studies Department at AUCA.




‘’P’’ Grade: ‘’Conditional Passing may be given for 90-100% of total grade.


‘’I’’ Grade: ‘’Incomplete’’ is given, If the student has been performing well throughout the semester but due to serious reason was not able to finish final assignment before the end of the semester. The Student must report the reason to the Department and the Register’s Office. After the assignment is completed, ‘’I’’ grade is replaced by the final grade.


‘’W’’ Grade: If the Student refuse to continue to study this course, this grade can be given by the Instructor. The Student signs the form designed by the Register’s Office and should repeat this course if it is a required course in the department.


‘’AU’’ Grade: ‘’Course Audit’’ is given if the Student may choose this course for audit and receive AU in case to be present for 75% of the classes.



Week I. Introduction

13.01.2014 - Introduction to the Course and Syllabus.

15.01.2014– The Concept of Security


A. Theoretical Approaches to the European Security


Week II. Theoretical Backgrounds of European Security I

20.01.2014 – Theoretical Backgrounds of European Security: Realism and Neorealism

22.01.2014 – Theoretical Backgrounds of European Security: Liberalism and Neoliberalism


Week III.  Theoretical Backgrounds of European Security II

27.01.2014 – Theoretical Backgrounds of European Security: Social Constructivism

29.01.2014 – Theoretical Backgrounds of European Security: Critical Theories


B. Historical Developments of the European Security


Week IV. European Security after the Second World War

03.02.2014 – European Security after WWII.

05.02.2014 – European Security after WWII.


Week V. Cold War Period

10.02.2014 – European Security during 1950s and 1960s.

12.02.2014 – European Security during 1970s and 1980s.


Week VI. Post-Cold War: From Maastricht to St. Malo

17.02.2014– European Security during 1990s.

19.02.2014 European Security during 1990s.


Week VII. Post 9/11 Challenges

24.02.2014– European Security After 9/11.

26.02.2014– European Security After 9/11.


Week VIII. Midterm Week

03.03.2014 – Mid-Term Exam

05.03.2014 Review of the MT


Week IX. Spring Break: No Classes: 10.03.2014 – 14.03.2014


C. National Perspectives on the European Security


Week X. National Perspectives on European Security

17.03.2014 – French and British Perspectives on European Security.

19.03.2014 – German and Russian Perspectives on European Security.


D. Security Institutions in Europe


Week XI. Security Institutions I

24.03.2014 – Organization Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

26.03.2014 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).


Week XII. Security Institutions II

31.03.2014 – The Western European Union (WEU).

02.04.2014 – The European Union (EU).


E. Problems in the European Security


Week XIII. The Balkans

07.04.2014 – The EU and Yugoslav Crisis.

09.04.2014 Kosova.


Week XIV. The EU Crisis Management Operations in the International System

14.04.2014 – the Middle East

16.04.2014 – Africa



Week XV. The Future of European Security

21.04.2014 – Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Nuclear Weapons.

23.04.2014 – Current Debates and Issues in European Security.


Week XVI. Review of the Course

28.04.2014 - Review of the Course.

30.04.2014 - Review of the Course.


  • Note: the Instructor reserves the right to make any changes in the content of topics. It is one of the main responsibilities of the students to attend the class and be informed about any changes.


 Abbreviations and Acronyms



AFSJ – Area of Freedom, Security and Justice.

Benelux – Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.

CAP - Common Agricultural Policy.

CEE – Central Eastern Europe.

CEEC – Committee for European Economic Co-operation.


CEN – European Committee for Standardization.


CET – Common External Tariffs.


CC - Candidate Country.


CFP – Common Fisheries Policy.


CFSP – Common Foreign Security Policy.


CJEU – Court of Justice of the European Union.


CoR – Committee of the Regions and Local Authorities.

COREPER - Committee of Permanent Representatives.

CSCE – Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe.

EAEC - European Atomic Energy Community=EURATOM.

EAFRD – European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development.

EC – European Community.

ECB – European Central Bank.

ECJ – European Court of Justice.

ECOSOC - Economic and Social Committee of the EC.

ECSC - European Coal and Steel Community.

ECU - European Currency Unit.

EDF - European Development Fund.

EEA – European Economic Area or European Environment Agency.

EEC - European Economic Community.

EESC – European Economic and Social Committee.

EFTA - European Free Trade Association.

EIB - European Investment Bank.

EMF – European Monetary Fund.

EMS - European Monetary System.

EMU – Economic and Monetary Union.

ENP – European Neighborhood Policy.

EP - European Parliament.

ERASMUS - European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students

ERDF - European Regional Development Fund.

ESDP – European Security and Defense Policy.

ESF - European Social Fund

EU – European Union.

Eurojust- Europeans judicial co-operation unit.

Europol – European Police Office.

EUROSTAT - Community's Statistical Office.

GDP – Gross Domestic Products.

IGC – Intergovernmental Conference.

IMF – International Monetary Fund.

IPE – International Political Economy.

IR – International Relations.

JHA – Justice and Home Affairs.

MEP - Member of the European Parliament.

MFN – Most Favored Nation.

NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

NGOs – Non-Governmental Organizations

NTB – Non-tariff barriers.

OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

OEEC – Organization for European Economic Cooperation.

PR – Proportional Representation.

QMV – Qualified Majority Voting.

SEA – Single European Act.

SEM – Single European Market.

TEU – Treaty on European Union.

UN – United Nations.

WEU - Western European Union.







European Union in the US



A to Z Index of European Union Websites




Know Europe Web Directory



EUROPARL: The European Parliament Online


CONSILIUM: Council of the European Union


The European Commission


CURIA - The Court of Justice


Court of Auditors




European Central Bank


European Economic and Social Committee


Committee of the Regions


European Investment Bank


European Ombudsman




Community Plant Variety Office


CEDEFOP: The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training


European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products


European Agency for Reconstruction


European Agency for Safety and Health at Work


European Defense Agency:

European Environment Agency


European Food Safety Authority


European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions


European Investment Fund


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction


European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia


European Training Foundation


Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market


Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union



Archive of European Integration


Blue Guide to the Archives of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the Member States and

the Institutions of the European Union


Compendium: Cultural Policies in Europe


Historical Archives


EIoP: European Integration online Papers


European Foreign Policy Bulletin


The European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR):

Euractiv EU News & Policy debates:

University Association for Contemporary European Studies (UACES):

The European Union Studies Association (EUSA):

The European Union Center of Excellence (EUCE):


Europe’s World:

Debating Europe:

Toutel Europe:

Europe in 12 Lessons:

Euro Web-Online:

YouTube EU:

BBC News – Europe:

EU Observer:

Foreign and Security Policy:

European Research Papers Archive:

The EU Delegation to the United States:

Access to European Union Law: (Eur-Lex):

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